Computer Fundamental.

Types of computers in use

Desktop computer – desktop computer is a popular category of the computer device. In which, you get crt, led, LCD monitor, mouse, keyboard, cabinet and cabinet components, speaker. The definition of a desktop computer here is that all the computer equipment in a desktop computer is fixed in its place, and cannot be easily moved. Here the desktop computer comes in the category of a personal computer. Which is used and operated by a dedicated client, it is easy to solve in desktop computers with the help of installed programs called software to perform and manipulate all the actions and events created by the user. At present, you will get many options of apple iMac, hp, Dell, Lenovo, Asus, Acer, company. Where in the past, you used to build a desktop computer by adding different components in the form of desktop computer Crt, led, LCD monitor, mouse, keyboard, cabinet and cabinet components, speakers. Whereas in today’s time all desktop components are contained in a single LCD, TFT, desktop AIO (all in one) monitor LCD. Here you only have to attach an external keyboard and mouse device.

computer fundamental

Laptop Computer – Laptop computer is a versatile machine. Which enables you to perform commercial non-system work while the laptop component travels around the world. A laptop computer is a very useful computer device, which can be used anywhere. You can use it at home, office, company, school, building, organization, and many other places due to its portability. Here laptop everything system functions just like your desktop computer. Where every laptop has an external power source battery. Which supplies power to the laptop. where electricity is not available. Or the power is disconnected, and can do its work in any situation. Here all the necessary application software can be installed on the laptop just like on the desktop. Here laptop computers have all the necessary similar equipment like desktops. As such, it includes LCD, LED display, keyboard, touchpad (the mouse has been replaced with touchpad), all COM, PS/2, USB, LPT, Ethernet port, HDMI, VGA, card reader slot, and many other ports and network components. Huh. Here you will find laptops available in size 14″ 15″ 17″ and more, but many laptops do not have the portability features in larger sizes. At present, you have a choice of laptops from many companies, which include Apple MacBook Pro, MacBook Air, Hp, Lenovo, Dell, Asus, Acer, Samsung, Mi, Razer Blade, Avita, and many more options are available.

Notebook – Notebook computers are much smaller in size and weight than laptop computers. Where a notebook computer does all your work just like a laptop. Here you can pack a notebook in your bag, and go wherever you want and do commercial system tasks. You must install the necessary application software on the notebook computer before you can use the notebook computer. Where notebook computers are capable of doing everything system tasks. Which you can do with desktop and laptop computers. The main difference between desktop, laptop, and notebook is the size of a notebook computer, which is a very useful device, many people use it when. When they travel across different countries and continents. Here in a typical notebook computer, the power is provided from the battery. When a notebook power charger is in unplugged mode. Or the main power supply is interrupted. Here we work easily for 4 hours to 8 hours and above for 10 to 12 hours without electricity in notebook computers.

Palmtop Computer – Palmtop computer is very small in size. Where you can easily keep it in your palm or pocket. Where it is a very simple little computer device similar in size to a smartphone. Which featured a palmtop design with limited functionality. Where some basic function applications are installed with palmtop computers. Where you can play games, check dates, make calls, calculate numerically, and solve other telecommunications and information technology activities that can be easier said than done in a palmtop. In palmtop devices, you get a pen for input, keyboard, touch screen, for input operation any command and procedure. With a palmtop device, you can browse web content, play multimedia objects, and perform other official tasks with ease. Where Palmtop is small in size, low in weight, minimum power consumption, battery charging, installation, features, etc. features are inbuilt.

Ultra-book computers – Ultrabook computers are the new generation category of laptop and notebook computers. Which is a very slim notebook computer model with higher processor memory, battery backup, new ports, and features as compared to the previous version of laptop and notebook computers. Where today’s company has developed a slim 18 mm or less ultra-book computer according to the customer’s use. Where ultra-book computers can be manipulated, easiest to manipulate, with all the new features to process data and information, efficiency, faster processing, reliability, security, new generation hardware, and software capability.

Tablet computers – Tablet computers are a new generation of computing devices. Which enables you to use computer and cellphone functions simultaneously in one place. Where the general tablet computer includes computing, telecommunications, voice chatting, video conference, digital camera function, notebook function, Internet browsing, calculation, multimedia function, audio-video capture recording function, availability. Where you can enter data manually using a pen, touch screen keyboard, hand finger, or voice command. Here tablet computers are larger in size than smart cellphones, but less than notebook or laptop computers. Where every tablet has a single battery with a connecting charger pin. Similarly, like a notebook, laptop, ultrabook, the tablet is the running device. It even allows complete portability with robust features. Now it is mostly used by salesmen, businessmen, students, and others while traveling.

Type of Computer’s according to (Tech)

  • Analog computer
  • Digital computer
  • Hybrid computer

Most types of operating systems are developed by individual companies or organizations.

Let’s define them at their user level.

# Note – Above all is O/S (Operating System) struggling in the public market for better performance and latest developments in the public sector to better understand customer’s requirements and market needs. Which can be able to meet all the needs of daily life dependent on global changes.

Now we individually explore them step by step

Mac OS – Mac O/S (Operating System) is developed and maintained by the Apple company that continues. Where it is the world’s strongest popular operating system platform. Which completes the advanced developer-level business look like an operating system. Where Mac OS has become the more popular O/S (Operating System) among developers, designers, engineers, scientists, even general computer clients around the world. While it looks cute, fabulous, and looks great with a good appearance, this is the first site to have an attractive look-like environment. Where its Dialog Pictures, Controls, Application Controls, Options, to a large extent Commercial and other routines O/S (Operating System) line up models in these categories look quite different. Where Apple company continues to introduce new concepts, features, and advanced technology to glorify its features among its users/customers worldwide. At present, you will get Mac o/s (Operating System) in Mac o/s Sierra, Mac o/s High Sierra, Mac o/s Catalin, Mac o/s Mojave, and now Mac o/s Big Sur is very popular among all of them.

Various Mac OS Versions Listed Below.

Linux – Nowadays Linux o/s have become more popular among client, client, server, and developer level users. While there are several reasons why it works, let’s describe them in detail, here because Linux is a combination of open-source free GPL (general public license) and most FOSS (free open-source software) applications. This means you don’t need to pay anything while using Linux at the commercial and client level. But in some cases when you use Linux o/s commercial for industry organization or company. So, license linux o/s purchase is required. Whereas Linux being its open source is built by many developers across the world. Worldwide is an online worldwide developer list completely dedicated to improving the Linux o/s version on a regular basis. Where globally the development of Linux by the developer continues in different community regions, countries, and continents. Even today the Linux operating system is chosen for large corporate and commercial work. Even big tech giants prefer Linux operating system for their client and server machines. In today’s time, you can use many available distros of Linux. Some of them are the main ones, such as Linux RedHat, Debian, Fedora, CentOS for development, and Linux Mint, Ubuntu, Manjaro, Zorin, Arch Linux, and many more versions are available for client use.

List of popular Linux distributions around the world.

Windows – The Windows operating system has become the most widely used commercially renowned operating system in the world among the client and macro client levels. This includes Windows Business Commercial and Non-Commercial Operating System versions. Whereas Windows O/S being the main USB it is easily used. Here it is easy to learn Windows operating system with easy simple, user-friendly, small steps. It is spreading in all global communities with a huge collection of apps of essentials in their regional language and environment. Where Microsoft company prides itself on developing the Windows operating system. Even almost 90% of computers in the world have windows market share and windows platform-based installed operating systems. It is also significantly more popular in the commercial business, even at the client level, where the Microsoft company constantly changes the user operating system, with regular improvements to the operating system created in response to customers. makes improvements. Which meet the regular needs of their customer. Here you get the most popular Microsoft operating system in the world. At present, you get Windows 11, Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, operating systems present at the Windows client level. Whereas in the Windows Server category, you will find many options for Windows Server 2019, Windows Server 2016, Windows Server 2012, operating systems.

The most popular flavor of Microsoft operating system in the world.

Project about windows.

The Windows Project was started by Microsoft in the year 1986. The company was started by the company’s owner Bill Gates and his partner. Where the Microsoft company started manufacturing all kinds of desktop and server-client operating system development in its project. Where after a long journey process of Microsoft create a successful O/S(Operating System) and launch it globally. And even today it has become the more popular and stable number one operating system in the list of most popular operating systems in the world. Now today Microsoft operating systems are used all over the world on different platforms or machines. Because it provides an easy, simple, and GUI (Graphical User Interface) environment with easy access. Where it meets all the needs of the customer, and provides all the feedback.

Features of Windows OS, which make it better and different in the list of popular OS.

Easy to use.Easy to learn.Multi-purpose.Multi-user.
Global access.Sharable resource.Network control.Policy management.
Graphical.Multi-tasking.Low skill.Easy to install.
Dialogue guide.Low maintenance.Connectivity.Liberty.

Windows 98 – Windows 98 operating system was more popular in the year 1998. Where it was released by the Microsoft organization, it covers almost all of its operating system market share worldwide at the time. Where Windows 98 combines all the many built-in features and hardware controls for Windows operation. Where Windows 98 has the best features and hardware tools for all clients and other administrative tasks. Even this is a stable plug-and-play and an operating system environment. At that time it supported and installed almost all computer platforms all over the world.

Windows XP – Windows XP operating system was released after Windows 98, Win Me, Windows 2000, operating system. Where the Windows XP operating system was first launched, and Win XP had all the necessary system features utility, considering the great looks and environment. Where Windows XP was a fully graphical, multi-user, multi-tasking, multi-threading, O/S operating system. It was designed to meet all customer-level needs. Windows XP Build O/S is based on Windows 98 O/S, where the popular and stable version of Windows XP for a long time worked without causing any errors, debug, and client issues. Here is the best support for windows xp. Where it was completely designed on the concept of previous windows release, the best part is that Microsoft company released windows XP separate edition windows xp service pack 1, service pack 2, service pack 3 final release. It provides some stable and advanced requirements for its user to make an operating system support, more features, and environment.

Windows Vista – The Windows Vista operating system was released after the Windows XP operating system. Where as Windows Vista provides a highly graphical and robust Restrictions Group Policy-based software environment. Which was completely built on the concept of preventing piracy, copying or misuse of source code by illegal users. Where Windows Vista usually doesn’t break software restrictions and group policy settings. Where it only allows you to have genuine software and hardware support tools, Windows Vista controls, dialogs, windows buttons, titles, and other features. Which are completely different from previous releases by Microsoft company. Where Windows Vista adds a new generation of tools, and controls for a new environment with easy accessibility. and minimizes software piracy and misuse of legal resources. It even offers a robust Windows client and server-based Restrictions Group Policy environment.

Window 7 – The Windows 7 operating system was launched after Windows Vista. Where it is successfully working in the market even today. Windows 7 operating system is an improved version of Windows Vista O/S. Windows 7 was launched by Microsoft in October 2009. Where Windows 7 provides you an easy user interface with upgrade software-hardware booting kernel instructions as compared to Windows Vista operating system. While built-in Windows 7 brings a new web browser, Windows Media Player, personalization, improved security environment, new control panel, and more features found in Windows 7 O/S, it includes networking support, device attachment liberty, and many new concepts. which are not included in any previous version of the Windows operating system. Even Window 7 is the more stable operating system. And it was installed on most of the desktop, laptop, operating systems in the world before the Windows 10 operating system was released.

Computer system

Introduction to PC – Here PC stands for Personal Computer. Where it is a very useful electronic device. Where it has already been reducing human effort for many decades. In earlier times all the work, technical, non-technical work, was done manually by human beings. But in the year 1960, a computer device developed by Charles Babbage was introduced. And there were groups of some commonly used utility and system software offered by many developers. And after some time people, after they complete the development of computer technology, sociologists come to know that what is the importance of machine technology in human life. Nowadays computers in various formats/sizes are famous among computer developers, designers, operators, and analysts. Where it may be in the form of a desktop, laptop, palmtop, notebook, ultra-book, tablet, or wristwatch, etc., where the personal computer is now available for any organization, industry, company, firm, departmental store, bank, railway, Used by the reservation system at the airport, shopping. It also includes personal purposes like malls, internet access, networking, and much more. Generally, a computer device is made up of four separate elements. Which includes LED, cabinet (CPU), mouse, keyboard, and other optional components, e.g., printer, scanner, modem, speaker, and other essential devices in this category. Even computers have multi-purpose, multi-purpose, multi-purpose performing most of the Windows tasks, where Windows applications can perform multiple tasks at the same time.

PC Components.

Bits – A bit is a unit of measurement of data used in a computer to represent some data and information. Where bit represents the information in two numbers (0, 1) is known as a binary number. Where each computer processes the data input/output information in the size of bits.

Number System – The number system is a series of combinations of computer keyboard letters, alphabets, symbols, numeric, special characters, and function keys. When we press any keyboard key/character number system, the computer converts them into equivalent binary code in machine language. Machine language is directly understood by the computer. Where machine language represents information in the format (0, 1). The computer converts all input keyboard characters into the same machine code. where is the decimal number system processed by humans for regular math/numerical calculations. The default computer works on four types of number system technology. And their names are binary, decimal, octal, and hexadecimal, number systems.

Type of number system

  • Binary number system.
  • Decimal Number System
  • Octal number system.
  • Hexadecimal number system.

Binary Number System – Binary number system consists of base 2 and the digit (0, 1). Where the binary number system is directly understood by a computer circuit or register. By default, the computer presents, or processes, all the information in a binary shape/form. Where the computer converts any number system into an equivalent binary number system for processing and computing a digital information system.

Ex – (10111)2

Decimal Number System – A decimal Number System is used by humans for process and routine calculation. For example, you can do addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, mathematical calculations, etc. where the decimal number system consists of the digits 0 to 9, (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) and the base/radix 10. For even math functions Decimal number routines are used for many math calculations.

Octal Number System – The octal number system is used to process computer-generated information and data to be processed by the computer. The default in the octal number system is the digits 0 to 7 (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7), and its base is 8. Where octal numbers are used to easily convert computers to binary. Format It is used when creating and manipulating system information.

Ex – (87)8

Hexadecimal Number System – Hexadecimal number system is a better combination of numbers and alphabet. Where the number in hexadecimal consists of 10 digits and 6 characters. Here the digit 10 is an integer number, which is as follows (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,) and there are six alphabetical alphabets, viz., (a, b, c, d, e, f) where a=10, b=11, c=12, d=13, e=14, f=15 form the base of the 16 hexadecimal number system. Here you should know that hexadecimal number system computers also uses to calculate and process computer-based generated information while working on data and information.

Ascii code – abbreviated ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) following a computer keyboard widely used for character recognition/conversion method. When the user hits any key, the ascii alphabet converts the equivalent binary code. Where ASCI is developed and designed by Americans. Where it is used for character recognition around the world. Here ascii recognizes all keyboard digits 0 to 9 numbers, alphabet a to z, a to z symbols, special characters, ascii 7-bit representation process patterns.

Ascii code.

x7 x6 x5 x4 x3 x2 x1

ISCI code – abbreviated as ICICI (Indian Standard / Script Code for Information Interchange), characters used in Indian script character conversion are recognizable patterns. Where iscii supports the Indian traditional local language. Like, Devanagari, Kannada, Malayalam, Oriya, Telugu, Gujarati, Bengali, etc. Even it issi an 8-bit encoding pattern.

Unicode – Unicode is a standard industry character text representation method. Which follows the world-wise by character text information presentation. Where today’s modern operating system web browser follows the Unicode character conversion method.

Ebcdic code – ebdic code means, (Extended Binary Code Decimal Interchange) used with the punch cards used in the IBM (International Business Management) company. where ebcdic code follows an 8-bit pattern for information representation. Where ebcdic was developed by ibm for their mainframe computers. Even ebcdic works on the same ascii unicode and iscii. Where this character converts to alphabet, numeric, symbol, special character, etc. Even all modern computers easily understand the EBCDIC code.

Bytes – Bytes represent computer information. Where 8 bits in bytes and 8 bits are equal to 1 byte. Where every information in the computer is processed and generated in the size of bytes.

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